Hypertension is a clinical syndrome characterized by increased arterial blood pressure (systolic and/or diastolic) in the body circulation (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg), which may be accompanied by functional or organic damage to the heart, brain, kidneys and other organs. Hypertension is the most common chronic disease and the most important risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.


Blood pressure in normal individuals fluctuates within a certain range in response to changes in the internal and external environment.

In the overall population, blood pressure levels rise gradually with age, more markedly with systolic blood pressure, but diastolic blood pressure shows a decreasing trend after age 50, and pulse pressure increases.

In recent years, the understanding of the role of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the protection of the heart, brain and kidney target organs has improved, and the diagnostic criteria for hypertension have been adjusted. It is now believed that patients with the same blood pressure level have different risks of developing cardiovascular disease, hence the concept of blood pressure stratification, that is, patients with different risks of developing cardiovascular disease should have different appropriate blood pressure levels.

Blood pressure values and risk factor assessment are the main basis for diagnosis and the development of hypertension treatment plans. Different patients have different goals for hypertension management, and physicians face patients with reference standards to determine the most appropriate blood pressure range for that patient based on their specific situation and use targeted therapeutic measures.

On the basis of lifestyle improvement, the use of 24-hour long-acting antihypertensive drugs is recommended for blood pressure control.

In addition to assessing office blood pressure, patients should also pay attention to early morning blood pressure monitoring and management at home in order to control blood pressure and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

Causes of Hypertension


1. Genetic factors

Approximately 60% of patients with hypertension have a family history of hypertension. It is now believed to be due to polygenic inheritance, with 30% to 50% of hypertensive patients having a genetic background.

2. Mental and environmental factors

Long-term mental tension, excitement, anxiety, exposure to noise or bad visual stimulation and other factors can also cause the occurrence of hypertension.

3. Age factors

The incidence of hypertension tends to increase with age, with a high incidence in people over 40 years old.

4. Lifestyle factors

Irrational dietary structure, such as excessive sodium, low potassium diet, heavy alcohol consumption, excessive intake of saturated fatty acids can increase blood pressure. Smoking can accelerate the process of atherosclerosis, which is a risk factor for hypertension.

5. The influence of drugs

Contraceptives, hormones, anti-inflammatory and painkillers, etc. can affect blood pressure.

6. The influence of other diseases

Obesity, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea hypoventilation syndrome, thyroid disease, renal artery stenosis, renal parenchymal damage, adrenal occupational lesions, pheochromocytoma, other neuroendocrine tumors, etc.

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